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Used Kia Optima for Sale

395 Matches

2020 Kia Optima S

$24,99822K mi


Available at your store CarMax Dulles, VA

Key Features
Parking Sensors, Rear View Camera, Navigation System, Cruise Control, Auxiliary Audio Input, Rear Spoiler
Location: CarMax Dulles in Dulles, Virginia 20165
Description: Used 2020 Kia Optima S for sale - $24,998, 21,540 miles with Parking Sensors, Rear View Camera, Navigation System, Cruise Control, Auxiliary Audio Input, Rear Spoiler
Transmission: Automatic Color:Black Interior Color: Black Average Vehicle Review: (5 reviews) This car is super smooth to drive and silent. The SX version comes loaded with a turbo engine and technically all the bells and whistles. Since it comes with leather seats the front ones can be individually heated/cooled and the rear one can be heated if needed. I've already drove it on 9 hour-long trips from Austin TX to Memphis TN and can't be happier with the performance, fuel efficiency, smooth drive and a great look that make people turn to see it. The only cons I personally have for this car are these features that I'd love to have in this car, however they were not a deal breaker: 1) It doesn't have the remote start feature. 2) The windshield wipers are not automatic. 3) It doesn't come with steering wheel heater/warmer.

2019 Kia Optima SX

$27,99840K mi


Available at your store CarMax Dulles, VA

Key Features
Turbo Charged Engine, Leather Seats, Sunroof(s), Harman Kardon Sound, Parking Sensors, Rear View Camera
Location: CarMax Dulles in Dulles, Virginia 20165
Description: Used 2019 Kia Optima SX for sale - $27,998, 39,495 miles with Turbo Charged Engine, Leather Seats, Sunroof(s), Harman Kardon Sound, Parking Sensors, Rear View Camera
Transmission: Automatic Color:Black Interior Color: Red Average Vehicle Review: (4.75 reviews) The car has a nice look and beautiful interior. However, in less than a year I have had many mechanical issues with the car. At one point I took it to CarMax for service and the service center could not find anything wrong with it. I immediately took it to the Kia dealership who found the alternator was not working, all the filters needed change, along with the windshield wipers. I have also had to get a brand new battery, the rear camera is constantly not working, and the Park shift does not lock properly. All of this is happening on a car that I bought with under 25,000 miles on it, which tells me that a mechanical inspection was not performed.

2020 Kia Optima LX

$23,99815K mi


Free Shipping from CarMax Gaithersburg, MD

Key Features
Parking Sensors, Rear View Camera, Cruise Control, Auxiliary Audio Input, Alloy Wheels, Overhead Airbags
Location: CarMax Gaithersburg in Gaithersburg, Maryland 20877
Description: Used 2020 Kia Optima LX for sale - $23,998, 14,963 miles with Parking Sensors, Rear View Camera, Cruise Control, Auxiliary Audio Input, Alloy Wheels, Overhead Airbags
Transmission: Automatic Color:White Interior Color: Gray Average Vehicle Review: (5 reviews) My Kia Optima is just one of the best purchases I've ever made! Truly I never really thought of Kia as a competitor in the car industry let alone seeing myself own one. But I stand corrected truly Kia has surpassed all my expectations & some. Now offering the lastest technology, luxury packages, and design Kia is now a force to be reckoned with. Its stylish, dependable, great on gas & is very affordable and hassle free to maintain. Not to mention its spacious, with its large interior and trunk space it's truly almost the perfect cross between a sedan & small SUV. It's perfect for those who don't want that huge truck/SUV or minivan but also don't want those tiny sedans with no trunk space. Overall I am very pleased with my Kia Optima.

2015 Kia Optima LX

$18,99837K mi


Free Shipping from CarMax Laurel, MD

Key Features
Cruise Control, Auxiliary Audio Input, Alloy Wheels, Overhead Airbags, Traction Control, Side Airbags
Location: CarMax Laurel in Laurel, Maryland 20723
Description: Used 2015 Kia Optima LX for sale - $18,998, 36,393 miles with Cruise Control, Auxiliary Audio Input, Alloy Wheels, Overhead Airbags, Traction Control, Side Airbags
Transmission: Automatic Color:Red Interior Color: Red Average Vehicle Review: (4.287878787878788 reviews)

2020 Kia Optima SX

$29,99834K mi


Free Shipping from CarMax Laurel, MD

Key Features
Turbo Charged Engine, Leather Seats, Sunroof(s), Harman Kardon Sound, Parking Sensors, Rear View Camera
Location: CarMax Laurel in Laurel, Maryland 20723
Description: Used 2020 Kia Optima SX for sale - $29,998, 33,459 miles with Turbo Charged Engine, Leather Seats, Sunroof(s), Harman Kardon Sound, Parking Sensors, Rear View Camera
Transmission: Automatic Color:Tan Interior Color: Red Average Vehicle Review: (5 reviews)

2018 Kia Optima LX

$20,99824K mi


Free Shipping from CarMax Laurel, MD

Key Features
Parking Sensors, Rear View Camera, Cruise Control, Auxiliary Audio Input, Alloy Wheels, Overhead Airbags
Location: CarMax Laurel in Laurel, Maryland 20723
Description: Used 2018 Kia Optima LX for sale - $20,998, 23,144 miles with Parking Sensors, Rear View Camera, Cruise Control, Auxiliary Audio Input, Alloy Wheels, Overhead Airbags
Transmission: Automatic Color:Red Interior Color: Black Average Vehicle Review: (4.875 reviews)

2016 Kia Optima SXL

$21,99891K mi


Free Shipping from CarMax Laurel, MD

Key Features
Turbo Charged Engine, Leather Seats, Panoramic Sunroof, Harman Kardon Sound, Parking Sensors, Rear View Camera
Location: CarMax Laurel in Laurel, Maryland 20723
Description: Used 2016 Kia Optima SXL for sale - $21,998, 90,456 miles with Turbo Charged Engine, Leather Seats, Panoramic Sunroof, Harman Kardon Sound, Parking Sensors, Rear View Camera
Transmission: Automatic Color:White Interior Color: Black Average Vehicle Review: (4.647058823529412 reviews)

2017 Kia Optima SX

$23,99849K mi


Free Shipping from CarMax Frederick, MD

Key Features
Turbo Charged Engine, Leather Seats, Rear View Camera, Navigation System, Front Seat Heaters, Cruise Control
Location: CarMax Frederick in Frederick, Maryland 21704
Description: Used 2017 Kia Optima SX for sale - $23,998, 48,454 miles with Turbo Charged Engine, Leather Seats, Rear View Camera, Navigation System, Front Seat Heaters, Cruise Control
Transmission: Automatic Color:Black Interior Color: Black Average Vehicle Review: (4.75 reviews)

2013 Kia Optima SX

$17,998113K mi


Only available at CarMax Potomac Mills, VA

Key Features
Technology Package, Touring Package, Turbo Charged Engine, Leather Seats, Panoramic Sunroof, Infinity Sound System
Location: CarMax Potomac Mills in Woodbridge, Virginia 22192
Description: Used 2013 Kia Optima SX for sale - $17,998, 112,537 miles with Technology Package, Touring Package, Turbo Charged Engine, Leather Seats, Panoramic Sunroof, Infinity Sound System
Transmission: Automatic Color:Gray Interior Color: Black Average Vehicle Review: (4.543103448275862 reviews)

2016 Kia Optima EX

$22,99825K mi


$199 Shipping from CarMax Potomac Mills, VA

Key Features
Leather Seats, Rear View Camera, Front Seat Heaters, Cruise Control, Auxiliary Audio Input, Alloy Wheels
Location: CarMax Potomac Mills in Woodbridge, Virginia 22192
Description: Used 2016 Kia Optima EX for sale - $22,998, 24,289 miles with Leather Seats, Rear View Camera, Front Seat Heaters, Cruise Control, Auxiliary Audio Input, Alloy Wheels
Transmission: Automatic Color:Gray Interior Color: Black Average Vehicle Review: (4.647058823529412 reviews)

2015 Kia Optima LX

$15,99888K mi


Only available at CarMax Ellicott City, MD

Key Features
Cruise Control, Auxiliary Audio Input, Alloy Wheels, Overhead Airbags, Traction Control, Side Airbags
Location: CarMax Ellicott City in Ellicott City, Maryland 21043
Description: Used 2015 Kia Optima LX for sale - $15,998, 87,586 miles with Cruise Control, Auxiliary Audio Input, Alloy Wheels, Overhead Airbags, Traction Control, Side Airbags
Transmission: Automatic Color:White Interior Color: Tan Average Vehicle Review: (4.287878787878788 reviews)

2016 Kia Optima LX

$18,99869K mi


Free Shipping from CarMax Ellicott City, MD

Key Features
Rear View Camera, Cruise Control, Auxiliary Audio Input, Alloy Wheels, Overhead Airbags, Traction Control
Location: CarMax Ellicott City in Ellicott City, Maryland 21043
Description: Used 2016 Kia Optima LX for sale - $18,998, 68,589 miles with Rear View Camera, Cruise Control, Auxiliary Audio Input, Alloy Wheels, Overhead Airbags, Traction Control
Transmission: Automatic Color:Gray Interior Color: Black Average Vehicle Review: (4.647058823529412 reviews)

2020 Kia Optima EX Premium

$29,9986K mi


Free Shipping from CarMax Brandywine, MD

Key Features
Turbo Charged Engine, Leather Seats, Sunroof(s), Harman Kardon Sound, Parking Sensors, Rear View Camera
Location: CarMax Brandywine in Brandywine, Maryland 20613
Description: Used 2020 Kia Optima EX Premium for sale - $29,998, 5,841 miles with Turbo Charged Engine, Leather Seats, Sunroof(s), Harman Kardon Sound, Parking Sensors, Rear View Camera
Transmission: Automatic Color:Gray Interior Color: Black Average Vehicle Review: (5 reviews)

2015 Kia Optima EX

$21,99849K mi


Free Shipping from CarMax White Marsh, MD

Key Features
Premium Package, Technology Package, Leather Seats, Panoramic Sunroof, Infinity Sound System, Parking Sensors
Location: CarMax White Marsh in White Marsh, Maryland 21162
Description: Used 2015 Kia Optima EX for sale - $21,998, 48,978 miles with Premium Package, Technology Package, Leather Seats, Panoramic Sunroof, Infinity Sound System, Parking Sensors
Transmission: Automatic Color:Black Interior Color: Gray Average Vehicle Review: (4.287878787878788 reviews)

2016 Kia Optima EX

$21,99829K mi


Free Shipping from CarMax White Marsh, MD

Key Features
Leather Seats, Rear View Camera, Front Seat Heaters, Cruise Control, Auxiliary Audio Input, Alloy Wheels
Location: CarMax White Marsh in White Marsh, Maryland 21162
Description: Used 2016 Kia Optima EX for sale - $21,998, 28,557 miles with Leather Seats, Rear View Camera, Front Seat Heaters, Cruise Control, Auxiliary Audio Input, Alloy Wheels
Transmission: Automatic Color:Gray Interior Color: Gray Average Vehicle Review: (4.647058823529412 reviews)

2015 Kia Optima LX

$17,99867K mi


$199 Shipping from CarMax Fredericksburg, VA

Key Features
Cruise Control, Auxiliary Audio Input, Alloy Wheels, Overhead Airbags, Traction Control, Side Airbags
Location: CarMax Fredericksburg in Fredericksburg, Virginia 22407
Description: Used 2015 Kia Optima LX for sale - $17,998, 66,639 miles with Cruise Control, Auxiliary Audio Input, Alloy Wheels, Overhead Airbags, Traction Control, Side Airbags
Transmission: Automatic Color:Gray Interior Color: Black Average Vehicle Review: (4.287878787878788 reviews)

2020 Kia Optima LX

$24,99812K mi


$199 Shipping from CarMax Fredericksburg, VA

Key Features
Parking Sensors, Rear View Camera, Cruise Control, Auxiliary Audio Input, Alloy Wheels, Overhead Airbags
Location: CarMax Fredericksburg in Fredericksburg, Virginia 22407
Description: Used 2020 Kia Optima LX for sale - $24,998, 11,978 miles with Parking Sensors, Rear View Camera, Cruise Control, Auxiliary Audio Input, Alloy Wheels, Overhead Airbags
Transmission: Automatic Color:Black Interior Color: Black Average Vehicle Review: (5 reviews)

2012 Kia Optima SX

$16,99890K mi


Only available at CarMax Fredericksburg, VA

Key Features
Premium Package, Touring Package, Turbo Charged Engine, Leather Seats, Panoramic Sunroof, Infinity Sound System
Location: CarMax Fredericksburg in Fredericksburg, Virginia 22407
Description: Used 2012 Kia Optima SX for sale - $16,998, 89,902 miles with Premium Package, Touring Package, Turbo Charged Engine, Leather Seats, Panoramic Sunroof, Infinity Sound System
Transmission: Automatic Color:Blue Interior Color: Black Average Vehicle Review: (4.630434782608695 reviews)

2016 Kia Optima EX

$20,99868K mi


$199 Shipping from CarMax Fredericksburg, VA

Key Features
Leather Seats, Panoramic Sunroof, Parking Sensors, Rear View Camera, Navigation System, Front Seat Heaters
Location: CarMax Fredericksburg in Fredericksburg, Virginia 22407
Description: Used 2016 Kia Optima EX for sale - $20,998, 67,686 miles with Leather Seats, Panoramic Sunroof, Parking Sensors, Rear View Camera, Navigation System, Front Seat Heaters
Transmission: Automatic Color:White Interior Color: Black Average Vehicle Review: (4.647058823529412 reviews)

2018 Kia Optima LX

$21,99833K mi


$199 Shipping from CarMax Fredericksburg, VA

Key Features
Rear View Camera, Cruise Control, Auxiliary Audio Input, Alloy Wheels, Overhead Airbags, Traction Control
Location: CarMax Fredericksburg in Fredericksburg, Virginia 22407
Description: Used 2018 Kia Optima LX for sale - $21,998, 32,575 miles with Rear View Camera, Cruise Control, Auxiliary Audio Input, Alloy Wheels, Overhead Airbags, Traction Control
Transmission: Automatic Color:Red Interior Color: Gray Average Vehicle Review: (4.875 reviews)

2019 Kia Optima S

$25,99840K mi


$199 Shipping from CarMax Midlothian, VA

Key Features
Panoramic Sunroof, Parking Sensors, Rear View Camera, Cruise Control, Auxiliary Audio Input, Rear Spoiler
Location: CarMax Midlothian in Richmond, Virginia 23114
Description: Used 2019 Kia Optima S for sale - $25,998, 39,079 miles with Panoramic Sunroof, Parking Sensors, Rear View Camera, Cruise Control, Auxiliary Audio Input, Rear Spoiler
Transmission: Automatic Color:Gray Interior Color: Black Average Vehicle Review: (4.75 reviews)

2020 Kia Optima LX

$24,99817K mi


$199 Shipping from CarMax West Broad, VA

Key Features
Parking Sensors, Rear View Camera, Navigation System, Cruise Control, Alloy Wheels, Overhead Airbags
Location: CarMax West Broad in Richmond, Virginia 23060
Description: Used 2020 Kia Optima LX for sale - $24,998, 16,282 miles with Parking Sensors, Rear View Camera, Navigation System, Cruise Control, Alloy Wheels, Overhead Airbags
Transmission: Automatic Color:Red Interior Color: Black Average Vehicle Review: (5 reviews)

2013 Kia Optima EX

$18,99867K mi


$199 Shipping from CarMax Midlothian, VA

Key Features
Leather Seats, Panoramic Sunroof, Infinity Sound System, Rear View Camera, Front Seat Heaters, Cruise Control
Location: CarMax Midlothian in Richmond, Virginia 23114
Description: Used 2013 Kia Optima EX for sale - $18,998, 66,494 miles with Leather Seats, Panoramic Sunroof, Infinity Sound System, Rear View Camera, Front Seat Heaters, Cruise Control
Transmission: Automatic Color:Red Interior Color: White Average Vehicle Review: (4.543103448275862 reviews)

2015 Kia Optima LX

$18,99856K mi


$99 Shipping from CarMax Newark, DE

Key Features
Rear View Camera, Cruise Control, Auxiliary Audio Input, Alloy Wheels, Overhead Airbags, Traction Control
Location: CarMax Newark in Newark, Delaware 19711
Description: Used 2015 Kia Optima LX for sale - $18,998, 55,526 miles with Rear View Camera, Cruise Control, Auxiliary Audio Input, Alloy Wheels, Overhead Airbags, Traction Control
Transmission: Automatic Color:Gray Interior Color: Gray Average Vehicle Review: (4.287878787878788 reviews)

About the Kia Optima

Vehicle Summary

If you're in the market for a spacious sedan with plenty of features and options for customization, the Kia Optima may be worth a look! This four-door, mid-size sedan is a popular choice among young professionals, couples, and small families alike. Since its inception in 2000, the Kia Optima has seen numerous changes in terms of its body styling, trim offerings, and available features. Today, it is in its fourth generation of production and continues to be a top contender in its class.

Unless otherwise noted, information relating to these featured vehicles comes from third-party sources, including manufacturer information. Product and company names may be trademarks™ or registered® trademarks of third-party entities. Use of them does not imply any affiliation with or endorsement by these entities.

2010 - Present Kia Optima Trim Configurations

For the debut of the third-generation Kia Optima in 2010, the sedan saw a sleeker and sportier body style that buyers enjoyed. For this generation of Optima, the standard engine across all trim levels was also upgraded to a 2.4L four-cylinder engine. This was also the first generation to see a hybrid trim offered starting with the 2011 model year.

Throughout this generation, there are some changes from year to year in terms of trims offered and standard features.Review the basics below to compare what's included across various Kia Optima trim levels and model years.

2010 Trims

  • LX - 16-inch steel wheels, heated mirrors, full power accessories, keyless entry, MP3 player with AUX input
  • EX - 16-inch alloywheels, luxurious leather upholstery and leather-wrapped steering wheel, trip computer, automatic climate control
  • SX - larger 17-inch wheels, aluminum interior trim, sport-tuned suspension for a smoother ride

2011-2013 Trims

  • LX - 16-inch alloy wheels, Bluetooth® connectivity, available satellite radio, and cruise control
  • EX - rear air vents, leather upholstery, upgraded floor mats, and interior trim
  • EX Turbo - features a turbocharged engine with sport-tuned suspension and rear spoiler
  • SX - includes a turbocharged engine, larger 18-inch wheels, and choice of Technology and Premium packages
  • Hybrid - available in EX and SX trims, the hybrid comes standard with a rearview camera, automatic climate control, and keyless entry and ignition

2014-2015 Trims

Because the Kia Optima Hybrid saw a lot of success in previous model years, Kia made the hybrid engine available in all trim levels for the 2014 and Kia Optima 2015 model years

  • LX - includes heated exterior mirrors, keyless entry, and six-speaker sound system
  • EX - 17-inch alloy wheels, dual-zone climate control, and auto-dimming rearview mirror
  • SX - 18-inch alloy wheels, optional turbocharged engine, upgraded interior gauges, and driver display screen
  • Limited (Renamed SXL for the Kia Optima 2015) - premium interior trim, electronic parking brake, and LED fog lights

Including the Kia Optima 2016, Kia Optima 2017, and Kia Optima 2018, the fourth and current generation of Kia Optima saw a wide range of upgrades, changes, and redesigns. The new generation of Kia Optima features a longer, wider, and taller body for more space and some new standard features that both drivers and passengers can enjoy.

2016-2017 Trims

  • LX - rearview camera, five-inch display, Bluetooth connectivity, six-way power driver seat with lumbar support, optional turbocharged 1.6-liter engine
  • EX - heated steering wheel, dual-zone climate control for comfort, eight-inch touchscreen display, and leather upholstery
  • SX - standard turbocharged 2.0-liter engine, larger 18-inch wheels, adaptive headlights, ambient lighting, and rear side window shades for privacy
  • SXL - includes exterior chrome accents and trim, and upgraded leather upholstery

2018 Trims

  • LX - smartphone integration (Apple CarPlay® and Android Audio), optional turbocharged 1.6-liter engine, blind-spot monitoring and rear parking sensors
  • S - includes a rear spoiler, 17-inch wheels, and leather upholstery
  • EX - illuminated door handles, hands-free trunk door, dual-zone climate control with rear vents, chrome accents, keyless entry and ignition
  • SX - standard turbocharged 2.0-liter engine, sport-tuned suspension, upgraded driver information display, adaptive LED headlights

Reliability Research

4
1
2
Excellent

RepairPal gave the Kia Optima an overall reliability rating of 4.5 out of 5 stars, which RepairPal describes as Excellent. This rating ranks the Kia Optima 7th out of 31 among Midsize Cars.

  • Cost RepairPal reports that the average total annual cost for repairs and maintenance on a Kia Optima is $347, compared to an average of $405 for Midsize Cars and $556 for all the vehicles RepairPal considered in its dataset.
  • Frequency According to RepairPal, Kia Optima owners bring their vehicles into a repair shop for unscheduled repairs an average of 0.8 times per year, compared to an average of 0.8 times for Midsize Cars and 1.4 times for all the vehicle models RepairPal considered in its dataset.
  • Severity RepairPal reported that the probability of a repair being a severe or major issue is 7% for the Kia Optima, compared to an average of 9% for Midsize Cars and 12% for all the vehicles RepairPal considered in its dataset.

RepairPal Reliability Ratings are based on the actual cost, frequency, and severity of unscheduled repairs and maintenance on make/model data for select 2006-2020 vehicles. The reliability of a specific vehicle may vary depending on its maintenance and driving history, model year, trim, and features.

*RepairPal Reliability Ratings are provided by RepairPal and CarMax is not responsible for their accuracy. These ratings are based on RepairPal Reliability data as of 09/01/2021. Learn more.

RepairPal

Reviews for Kia Optima

Overall Rating

4.5 out of 5 (368 reviews)

Wonderful, Dependable, and Great on gas daily driv

My Kia Optima is just one of the best purchases I've ever made! Truly I never really thought of Kia as a competitor in the car industry let alone seeing myself own one. But I stand corrected truly Kia has surpassed all my expectations & some. Now offering the lastest technology, luxury packages, and design Kia is now a force to be reckoned with. Its stylish, dependable, great on gas & is very affordable and hassle free to maintain. Not to mention its spacious, with its large interior and trunk space it's truly almost the perfect cross between a sedan & small SUV. It's perfect for those who don't want that huge truck/SUV or minivan but also don't want those tiny sedans with no trunk space. Overall I am very pleased with my Kia Optima.

Pros

  • Fuel Economy: Great on gas! Perfect for road trips and or daily commutes
  • Cargo Space: Has the perfect amount of space for the family and luggage. It completely elimates the complaining of lack of room in the back seat.
  • Power: Definitely has the ability to move swiftly with the faster flow of traffic

- Kayla S., 2014 Kia Optima

Super smooth ride for a fairly decent price

This car is super smooth to drive and silent. The SX version comes loaded with a turbo engine and technically all the bells and whistles. Since it comes with leather seats the front ones can be individually heated/cooled and the rear one can be heated if needed. I've already drove it on 9 hour-long trips from Austin TX to Memphis TN and can't be happier with the performance, fuel efficiency, smooth drive and a great look that make people turn to see it. The only cons I personally have for this car are these features that I'd love to have in this car, however they were not a deal breaker: 1) It doesn't have the remote start feature. 2) The windshield wipers are not automatic. 3) It doesn't come with steering wheel heater/warmer.

Pros

  • Cargo Space: Lots of room
  • Technology and Entertainment: All cool features included: GPS navigation, Bluetooth connection, Satellite radio, rear view camera, individual air conditioning controls for driver and passenger, panoramic roof
  • Cabin Noise: no noise at all

Cons

  • Styling: It could have remote start, automatic windshield wipers and steering wheel warmer

- Ricardo Leon, 2012 Kia Optima

Good car for the price

The car has a nice look and beautiful interior. However, in less than a year I have had many mechanical issues with the car. At one point I took it to CarMax for service and the service center could not find anything wrong with it. I immediately took it to the Kia dealership who found the alternator was not working, all the filters needed change, along with the windshield wipers. I have also had to get a brand new battery, the rear camera is constantly not working, and the Park shift does not lock properly. All of this is happening on a car that I bought with under 25,000 miles on it, which tells me that a mechanical inspection was not performed.

Pros

  • Styling: I love the color and sleek stile.
  • Interior Space: It is spacious and comfortable for the back seat passengers.
  • Technology and Entertainment: I like all the technology options, especially the phone blue tooth and the many channels I can save.

Cons

  • Cost to Maintain: I have had the car only 9 months and I already have spent nearly $2k in repairs.
  • Visibility: It does have a bad blind spot, especially on the passenger side.
  • Cabin Noise: It is not as quite as I would have liked. When I drive on the highway I have to turn the volume up.

- Elsa Flores, 2014 Kia Optima

This price does not include tax, title, and tags. Additional fees may also apply depending on the state of purchase.